HIV/AIDS and the Modern Society
Deviance refers to behavior which disrupts social norms and involves disapproval from the society. It can be categorized into non-criminal and criminal acts. Criminal acts refer to a direct violation of laws and have penalties when violated while non-criminal acts are the violation of societal norms and have no penalties. Deviance breaks important organizational norms thereby putting at risk the company and its members.
Sexuality in any society is not socially acceptable. In the modern society sex is portrayed in the mainstream culture as seen in explicit coverage of sexually related behaviors in the newspapers, movies, media and in magazines. Recently, sexual expression is used as accepted entertainment just like attending sports activities, gambling or even watching movies. Pornography has become more popular in the modern world and its industries gaining billion of dollars every year. Access such materials have become very easy by the help of technology and media by just pressing a single button. It is estimated that the adult entertainment industries produce close to $4 billion yearly. It is also clear that it is accepted in the society and is mainstreamed into traditional stores.
Sexual immorality has increased in the modern society and has resulted to changing gender roles leading to a new meaning. In the context of gender equality women are supposed to have access to the same opportunities as those of men. This has led men to try and have access to recapture control for interest of women. This has steered women to be accused of longing for money. Research has shown that married or unmarried women have greed for money, leading to fast changing relationships between the sexes. In the past, a girls initial sexual contact was with the husband and her virginity was her personal pride and social exultation of her family.
Moral and social education among the members of a society was the obligation of families has changed. Many people indicate that today they are brought up in a moral void. The parents are substituted by friends and peers making them unable to accomplish their traditional roles. This leads to the rate of sexual immorality to increase due to the introduction of preventive measures such as, the use of condoms and pills. This is because they lack the appropriate guidance on how to use them and their side effects. To a large extent, many women are afraid of getting premarital pregnancies unlike being infected with STIs. As a result, they use family planning to prevent pre-marital pregnancies but in the real sense do not prevent infections from HIV/AIDS.
Sexual immorality is interpreted as a result of modern lifestyles and identified as one of the diseases of development. Globalization has led to moral decay, as a result of high living standards the vulnerable groups engage in immoral behaviors such as prostitution so as to meet the demands of the modern society where money is a key determinant. In return, they are infected with HIV/AIDS which paralyzes their social- economic development. Sexual immorality is greatest among the youths who are yet to be married and the young married. The age factor who are at a higher risk of being infected range between 15 to 49 years in most countries. This indicates prevalence of sexual immorality begins at an early age. The young boys and girls are negatively influenced by their society and sexually depicting images are seen almost everywhere.
With the issue of male dominance at hand, this guides gender relations. It is believed that men receive sexual favors over the money and gifts which they give their female companions. Therefore, women are required to comply with the wishes and needs of their male companions. The subordinate location of woman in the sexual affairs required women to be modest. They had no say on whether to use condoms or not, the decision was to be made by their husbands and male partners even if they had to tolerate the negative costs which comes with acts such as HIV/AIDS. In addition, the modern society has pushed young girls to engage in sexual behaviors as means of earning a living- as the men leave them in the occasion they become pregnant. In regard to this men perceive this as unprepared business, and lack of morals leaving them to carry the burden for themselves.
However, modernity comes with a package of strategies to reduce the infections caused by sexual immorality. These strategies in applicability do not conform to cultures which advocate for sexual pleasure in which condoms are a hindrance. Therefore, strategies of reducing infection rate need to incorporate indigenous information in order to disseminate information in a clear language for the locals to understand. Culturally, intimacy was a key factor in a marriage hence condoms awareness would not be effective in such circumstances. The invention of condoms has increased cases of sexual immorality since it prevented unwanted pregnancies which most youths fear.
The prevalence of sexual behavior is mostly rampant among the ages ranges 14 to 49 due to exposure to the environments. Research shows that most of the people who lie between this age brackets happen to be sexually active. As a result of their activeness, they are exposed to a number of hazards such as sexually transmitted diseases and viral diseases like HIV and AIDS. In most cases, the most affected are women who are in marriage, youths who are yet to be married and children because of families. This deviant behavior has led to youths dropping out of schools as they become young parents with ignorance. Women in marriage are most exposed as a result of increased cases of infidelity.
Additionally, sexuality has had various impacts in the various sector of the economy being; the labour of many nations had deteriorated as the skills they had ended when they were swept by this behavior. As well, the education sector has lost teachers and scholars. More to this, school attendance and enrollment of the affected children is a demand as it causes academic downfall. As well the demand for health care services has strained the available facilities and the personnel at large. This comes as the healthcare personnel are and the victims of cases of sexuality.
Most of the infected are women due to the cultures that guide their behavior as well as the perception which the society has towards them as the weaker sex. Hence when women are left behind by their husbands they had to assume the role of providing for their families. In some cases, they are forced to engage in sexual immorality acts so as to provide for her family. In the modern society when a woman committed adultery while in marriage, she was labeled promiscuous, but their vows still remain as a result of the dowry paid. In some cases, the modern society justifies their actions stating that circumstances forced the woman into such acts. Men will also find a reason to go out of their marriage vows; therefore it leads to increased cases of infection among married couples. On the other hand, in the traditional society men were allowed to marry more than one wife and a strong bond existed between all of them. A woman who went out of her marriage was divorced and embarrassed in the society. She was not to be married by any other man. This reduced cases of sexual immorality due to fear of stigmatization.
There has been increased awareness on behavior change and safe sex guidance in the modern society. First and foremost, health reproductive depends on awareness, treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, the effect of sexual deviance has been reduced with the modern research and technology. At least gatherings aimed at educating people on behavior change helps in reaching populations.
Theories of deviant behavior
Differential association highlights the issues leading to deviance behavior. Environment is a major issue that determines which norm can be violated mostly by people. Edwin Sutherland invented this theory to indicate that people learn norms from different socializing agents such as family, parents, friends, teachers and the media. However family and media have failed in preventing sexual immorality in the society through adverts and the programs they air. They depict sexual revealing acts publicly influences children negatively. On the same note, this theory explains that as long as deviants are there in the society then it is like a disease because the number will continue to increase if preventive measures are not put in place. In relation to this theory, a society which has high rates of sexual immorality most probably has a higher rate of STIs infection. Meaning they are members of the larger society hence they require to be changed to reduce the infection rate. Since environment determines which norms can be violated, a child is more likely to depict sexual immorality behaviors which they encounter as they grow.
Social control theory
It is a functionalist theory developed by Hirsch Travisit. It states that deviance arises after a persons otherwise groups connection to social ties is destabilized. This theory tries to depict that people caution what others consider of them. Failure to adhere to these norms is referred to deviant behavior. This theory pinpoint on how deviants bond or not to a common value schemes and what situations break peoples obligation to these ethics. As well, this theory proposes that the majority of the people possibly feel some desire to be deviant at some point, but their ties towards social norms thwart them from in the real sense involving them in deviant behavior. In relation to this theory, the societal cultural norms try to ignite a sense of consciousness to the youths regarding sexual immorality. However, the youths in marriage and not in marriage try to behave to the contrary, failure to that they fear being excluded in the society or referred as outcasts. In this case therefore, if a member of the society is involved in prostitution they are perceived to be immoral due to the notion that virginity is regarded as valuable. People infected with HIV will tend to hide their status and the virus will be spread to other people without their consent.