Family Planning Issues

Nowadays hundreds of millions women in various countries want to delay or even stop childbearing. Using any method of contraception allows reaching such goals. Moreover, it decreases the need of abortion and helps to prevent the transmission of sexually infections including HIV. Family planning is a good way to reach desired number of children as well as determine the spacing amid pregnancies. This paper summarizes available modern family planning options by presenting their typical use statistics, the ways they work, advantages and disadvantages.

First and foremost, it is necessary to admit that more than 99% of women at the age of 15–44 years old who have already had sexual intercourse use minimum one contraceptive method. 67% of women who currently practice contraception prefer to use nonpermanent methods, such as condoms (5.7 million females rely on them), hormonal pills, patch, vaginal ring, implant, and IUDs. The rest number of them relies on sterilization (25% of female and 8% of male). Since 1982, the pills and female sterilization have been the most common using methods. Considering pills, it should be mentioned that it is the most widely used method amid white women, teens and 20s, never-married or cohabiting women, and childless women. Female sterilization is the most common among  Hispanics and black women, or those who are older than 35 years old, ever-married women or who has more than two children, women without higher education or who live far from metropolitan areas. 

 

Being the most popular contraception among women, there are combination pill and progestin-only pill. The first method is 99 % effective against pregnancy, but it is necessary to take it the same time every day. Other advantages of it are: making easier hot flashes, and restoring regular periods. However, there are some disadvantages, such as: it is not allowed to smokers, females older than 35 years old or who has migraines (as it might provoke painful headaches); can cause dangerous blood clots. Progestin-only pills that do not have estrogen are safe for breast-feeding women, diabetics, smokers, patients with heart disease, and people who are at risk to have blood clots. Nevertheless, it should remember to take them strictly at exact time daily, being late for three or more hours need applying a method again. 

The vaginal ring that consists of elastic plastic provides progestin and estrogen. Having a regular period, it is allowed to place it in the vagina for the period of three weeks, after that a woman should take it off for one week. Smoking females, women with cancers or blood clots do not have to use this method. 

Another good way is diaphragm. It prevents sperm to fertilize an egg by covering the cervix.  The only prescription is that it must be applied with a spermicide in the doctor's office. The disadvantages of it are: fluctuating weight by 10 pounds and more, predisposed women to the infections of bladder, and syndrome of toxic shock. 

IUD is an implanted device of copper by surgical way that works the same as diaphragm. It is recommended only for those women who have children as it may cause pain to nulliparous women. Very high cost is a unique disadvantage of it. 

Male and female condoms protect against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. The advantage of female condom is that it allows putting it in the place eight hours before sexual intercourse. The hormone-releasing patch is possible to place on the arm, abdomen, or buttock for seven days. People who are at risk to have blood clots should find another method. 

The next way is placing an implant on the upper arm under the skin that lasts three years. Despite its high cost, it is almost 100% effective. Women who take St. John's wort as well as who have overweight must not apply it. 

Being a surgical procedure, sterilization “blocks the fallopian tubes from carrying eggs to the uterus, or tubal implants”. Males have less risk with this method. People who are planning to have children cannot choose sterilization.

In conclusion, almost all humans in the developing countries apply contraception in their life. Modern technologies and the medical market allow women and men chose such way of family planning that is the most suitable for them. The only thing is that it is important to remember about negative effects that may cause.

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