Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s ideas and taking them as one’s own and failing to give credit of reference to the source of the ideas. Plagiarism can be avoided by citing the source from where one has gotten the ideas, even when the wordings of the document have been paraphrased. While paraphrasing the writer is required to ensure that the meaning is not distorted, as this may lead to unacceptable paraphrasing. Plagiarism which can be intentional or unintentional has serious academic consequences and most academic institutions have severe penalties to the offenders. 


In the essay ‘Tainted’, the student is guilty of plagiarism in the following sentences. He has only changed a few words of the original essay and only rearranging some of the words within a sentence.

Yet the resulting information can be warped for five reasons: ending a study too soon, not publishing negative results, publishing results too early, skimming over or ignoring drawbacks, and “buffing” the results by showing them in the best light. The student should have changed the words but ensuring that the information is still accurate and the phrase does not change its meaning and without forgetting to cite the source of information. The phrase can be made more acceptable to read as;

According to Crossen, the results are normally not a reflection of the truth because the scientists will only show the positive results. There is a lot of cover up of negative results and any results that are far from their expectations are covered up through unnecessary interim results.

The credit is also given by directly quoting from the source where the quote should be in quotation marks or in free-standing indented line but without quotation marks. However, direct quotations should have a limit and should not exceed more than four in any writing of ten pages.  All citations are later included in a reference list detailing all the sources that have been used. To avoid plagiarism, one should remember to give credit to the source, paraphrase accurately and in complete different words.

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