Mar 5, 2020 in Exploratory

Diabetes

Abstract

Diabetes has a global character of influencing the performance of people all over the world. It is a life-threatening disease, which affects individual’s productivity and ability to perform with the same intensity with other people. Diabetes became one of the major threats to the lifespan, which results in heart diseases and even heart strokes. It makes the research on the nature of illness meaningful and important in terms of protection of personal health. The scope of diabetes is another proof that the world continues to follow unhealthy behavioral patterns, which increase the development of diabetes. There is a need to consider prevention and treatment options, which will reduce the possibility of facing ramifications of uncontrolled diabetes. Awareness on the symptoms of diabetes should be helpful in the support of preventive measures.

Diabetes

The contemporary society lives under threat of numerous diseases, which continue to grow and develop because of imbalanced lifestyle and unhealthy behavioral patterns. Diabetes is one of the illnesses, which started progressing in a fast pace over the last decade. People started eating mindlessly without paying attention to the growth of personal weight. As a result, obesity became the main trigger of diabetes’ evolution. If people continue neglecting personal health, it would be impossible to fight against diabetes. In order to understand the nature of this health condition, it is worth considering the scope of diabetes and its prevention along with risk groups, ramifications of uncontrolled diabetes, and treatment options. Diabetes requires thorough attention and immediate action in order to reduce its negative influence on human organism.

 

Scope of Illness

Regardless of the fact that diabetes is the kind of illness, which has a random nature in affecting the population across the world. However, there are several predispositions, which increase the risk for the development of diabetes. If many years ago diabetes used to be the problem of well-developed rich countries, today it is the illness, which dominates in low-income and middle-income countries. In 2011, the survey showed that low-income and middle-income countries had approximately 290 million people suffering from diabetes, while high-income countries had only 75 million people affected by the same disease. The tendency continues to intensify its development, which means that the next decade will also reflect the spread of diabetes in the aforementioned regions of the world.

The development of diabetes in low-income and middle-income countries emphasizes the influence of the development and urbanization on behavioral patterns of people. In the majority of cases, people turn to less active lifestyle with less frequent physical activity. It happens for the reason of high-calorie diet, which attracts millions of people with the most delicious snacks and food saturated with fats. As a result, people spend money on food mindlessly, which makes them dependent on meals. In addition, people from low-income countries cannot afford purchasing high quality food. The global increase of obesity rate proves that people continue to neglect their training and meals plans, which destroy their health. People focus on their work-related problems forgetting to take care of their health.

Finally, age distribution is another characteristic of people suffering from diabetes in low-income and middle-income countries. The age group of people affected by the illness includes individuals in their most productive years. People in high-income countries start suffering from diabetes after 60 years. These facts explain the inability of people from low-income countries to afford appropriate healthcare services, which could prevent the development of diabetes. As a result, they have to miss many workdays due to the negative consequences of the disease leading to the decrease of the company’s productivity and economy in general.

Diabetes Prevention

The World Health Organization (WHO) works on the continuous upgrade of the target audience on the latest changes in the spread of diabetes. WHO also contributes to the awareness of people across the world on the prevention measures aimed towards reduction of risk factors related to the development of diabetes. In the majority of cases, diabetes develops due to the obesity or genetic predisposition of the individual to the disease based on the family history. However, it is possible to prevent diabetes by following several advice on how to reduce the risk for the development of illness. First, it is necessary to revise personal physical activity, which is crucial to the appropriate functioning of every body system. Loss of excessive weight, normalization of the level of sugar in blood, and increase of insulin sensitivity are the target goals of the prevention measures. Physical activity reduces fat and increases metabolism, which enhances the interexchange of chemical elements. Resistance training and aerobic exercises are the best solutions to the enhancement of physical activity helping to improve health indicators. The combination of both types of physical activity provides with the most effective and beneficial results.

Secondly, it is essential to work on the improvement of the meals plan by reducing the consumption of fats in excessive amount. It is highly recommended to include in the meals plan products rich on fiber such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits, beans, and nuts. These products represent additional help in managing the level of sugar in blood. Moreover, fiber-rich meals prevent the development of heart diseases and help to stay full for a longer time. Nutrition has the same importance as physical training has. Cereals, pasta products, and breads can increase the amount of fiber consumed on a daily basis. However, it is important to avoid low-carb diets, which hay high effectiveness in losing weight but do not have any positive impact on the reduction of diabetes-related risk factors. In addition, low-carb diets do not provide with long-term effect, which means that lost pounds will return quickly due to the inability to follow a strict diet plan. When people reduce the consumption of the important food groups leads to the devastation of human body due to the lack of nutrients. The key to effective dieting lies in making healthy food choices and including a variety of products on the plate rich on nutrients. A combination of dieting and physical activity lead to the most beneficial results in reducing the risk for diabetes.

Risk Groups

Prevention of diabetes is possible thanks to the willingness of the individual to prevent the development of a dangerous illness. However, there are specific criteria, which cannot change the fact that the risk group of the population under the threat of diabetes is broad. Age identifies the risk for the development of diabetes and heart diseases. Moreover, heart strokes also increase with the growing age. Many retired people suffer from diabetes due to the reduced ability of their bodies to process effectively the incoming chemical elements from food. In addition, rare visits to the doctor increase the development of illness due to the lack of awareness on the level of cholesterol and sugar in blood. High pressure, which dominates health conditions of elderly people, may also be a trigger of the development of diabetes.

It is difficult to claim that diabetes has an indiscriminating nature. For example, several ethnicities in the U.S. have a natural predisposition to the development of diabetes. African Americans, American Indians, Mexican Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders have a higher risk for facing diabetes due to high obesity rates and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, these ethnic groups continue to penetrate the myriad of individuals suffering from diabetes.

Gender is another risk factor, which cannot be changed. Men have a higher risk for diabetes development. However, when women reach the period of menopause, the risk for heart diseases and diabetes increases. Nevertheless, men still represent the group of population, which suffers from diabetes more than women do.

Finally, family history is another crucial element in the evaluation of the natural predisposition to diabetes. The risk of facing the same illness increases due to the genetic history. If there are any family members who have already faced diabetes, it is necessary to consult a doctor in order to understand further actions in the prevention measures.

Ramifications

Uncontrolled diabetes reaches one of the most unpredictable conditions if the patient cannot afford the designed treatment plan or refuses to take medicine for some reasons. In general, diabetes affects heart, eyes, nerves, kidneys, blood vessels, and even gums and teeth. First, patients with diabetes face the threat of heart diseases and strokes. The damage of blood vessels is also dangerous as long as it may lead to the amputation of body parts. The same outcome is possible in case of nerves damage. Many patients suffering from diabetes have higher risks for the removal of arms or legs due to the negative influence of diabetes. The possible symptoms of problems with blood vessels include changes in skin color and lack of sensitivity. However, heart diseases can hardly give any signals until a heart stroke. Controlling diabetes is the only way to avoid the aforementioned consequences related to heart and blood vessels.

Diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma are the most common consequences of diabetes influencing eyes. Vision problems, pain in the eyes, or sight loss indicate that diabetes requires careful consideration and control. Otherwise, ignorance of illness will lead to fatal outcomes. Regular examination of eyes and timely treatment help to prevent the development of the diabetes effects on eyes and eyesight.

Kidney failure is another frequent effect of uncontrolled diabetes, which destroys lives of thousands of people annually. Kidney disease may not have any symptom at the beginning of its development related to diabetes. However, legs and feet swelling are the primary indicators of kidney problems on the later stages of the disease progression. It should be alarming signs to ask for medical help. Medicines aimed to reduce blood pressure can be helpful in the prevention of kidney failure.

Excessive amount of blood sugar also affects the nervous system. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy leads to continuous pain in legs or lack of sensitivity. It starts from toes and continues to affect other body parts including hands. Autonomic neuropathy is another outcome of uncontrolled diabetes, which damages nerves regulating functionality of internal organs. Gastro paresis, dizziness, inability to feel full stomach, and sexual problems are the most common symptoms. However, all the symptoms find appropriate relief with the help of professional treatment including metformin, gliclazide, and insulin according to the type of diabetes (see Appendix). Anticonvulsants and antidepressants can cease the pain and stop seizures. Additional medical stimulation of nerves may also be helpful.

Bleeding gums is another consequence of diabetes, which may lead to the loss of teeth. Regular visits to the hospital can reduce the risk for losing teeth. The doctor should prescribe the optimal treatment for teeth care. Ignorance and non-attendance of the doctor will only worsen the condition.

Treatment Options

Every treatment program aimed to combat diabetes depends on the type of diabetes. As long as diabetes is a lifelong incurable problem, the costs spent on the treatment program prescribed by the doctor depend on the severity of illness and complexity of treatment. Type 1 diabetes requires the combination of insulin intakes, exercises, and dieting. The costs do not have excessive amount due to the usage of a single medicine. Type 2 diabetes has a more costly treatment program, which focus on weight reduction, physical exercises, insulin intake, and intake of additional medicines in case of the development of diabetes complications. Annually, a single person suffering from diabetes spends $13,700 on treatment including hospital visits, of which $7,900 relates to the purchase of diabetes medicines. Treatment of diabetes remains the same, which means that hospitals use the same approaches towards helping patients to feel relief.

Professional healthcare is the only way to treat diabetes in appropriate way, which will cease the negative influence of illness on functioning of the body. Nutritionist, endocrinologist, foot doctor, and eye doctor are the ones helping patients to handle the challenges of diabetes. Treatment of diabetes starts from continuous control of blood sugar level with combination of diet and physical activities plans. The doctor also decides what dosage of insulin is appropriate according to the blood sugar level. The doctor may also include drugs in the treatment plan, if there are any deviations from normal functioning of internal organs. As a result, a treatment plan may include drugs helping pancreas to produce insulin, drugs decreasing sugar absorption and production, drugs blocking glucose reabsorption, and synthetic hormones helping to reduce the blood sugar level.

Alternative medicine is another source of diabetes treatment. Vitamins B12 and B6 are helpful in treating nerve pain, while vitamin C contributes to the balance of the cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Magnesium can also lead to the reduction of blood sugar level. Vitamin E prevents the negative influence of diabetes on eyes and kidneys. Finally, herbals including garlic, ginkgo, holy basil leaves, ginseng, and fenugreek seeds are believed to be effective in supporting human body in fighting against diabetes. The doctor should advise what herbals and vitamins will be appropriate in the treatment plan.

Conclusion

Diabetes is one of the most dangerous illnesses faced by the contemporary society. It destroys health and leads to fatal outcomes without effective treatment. The nature of illness proved that it is not selective, which means that any individual can face diabetes due to imbalanced lifestyle or genetic predisposition to diabetes. Balanced nutrition and regular exercises are effective enough to prevent the development of the disease. Diet plans, physical activity, medication, and vitamins intake can significantly cease the negative impact of diabetes on the performance of the patient. However, it is necessary to understand that undetected and uncontrolled diabetes ruins the functioning of human organism, which may lead to death. Regular visits to the hospitals can help to raise the awareness on personal health conditions and timely inform on the recent changes in blood sugar level. It should be the alarming symptom motivating to start the treatment immediately. Otherwise, the complications will not take long to destroy human organism.

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