Jun 25, 2018 in Technology

Instrumental Conditioning

Selected Learning Situation

It is true that when a person is living on his own there are many things that need to be learned in order to be able to live a life that is pleasant and totally in order. One of the most crucial things that needs to be learned is the art of cooking. Regardless of whether your are a boy or a girl, you need to learn how to cook if you want to live on your own. If you are living on your own, you cannot just go in the restaurants or order a take out meal because living in such a lifestyle will cost you a lot of money. If you are just to spend more money in buying cooked food rather than making your own, you are wasting a lot of money which could have been saved or allotted to a more important bills to pay.

Bearing in mind the amount of money that you can save in cooking, you start learning. You begin with frying an egg to cooking barbeques and spare ribs. It is a lot more difficult to learn how to cook since you will have to think of the ingredients to use, the taste and many more. But it will all be worth it because of the fact that you can eat a good meal while saving a lot of money. It is a trial and error process because at first, you may not be able to get the right taste and the right amount of serving per cooking. However, you have to keep in mind the benefits of cooking your own food. Studies have shown that most people that have acquired diabetes, heart disease and other chronic ailments are caused by eating in fast food restaurants. This is an apparent result of not being able to watch the kind of food and the healthy lifestyle.

Positive and Negative Reinforcement

The positive reinforcement in this situation is the ability to save a lot of money when a person learned how to cook. It must be understood that the amount of money being spent in one meal from a fast food restaurant can already provide a persona with at least 2 meals in a day. The ingredients bought for an amount of $10 can be used in 3 more meals. In this regard, bearing in mind the amount of money that can be saved just by learning how to cook has become a positive reinforcement. Meaning to say, it has become a driving force and a motivating factor to learn. With the present day, money become more important than anything else in this world. People who have money are able to buy anything they want and anytime they want it. The situation is something that any ordinary people will envy because the fact that money is hard to earn, there are times that the earnings are not enough to support the needs more so to buy anything that is way beyond the budget. Because of this, many people are now becoming more practical in terms of their selections as to how their monies will be spent. Many are now found to become more wise in spending., The same thing goes with the above learning selection. Once the reality of being able to save a lot of money triggers the desire to learn how to cook not just for health reasons but rather to save some more (Poling, 1999).

The negative reinforcement, on the other hand, is the thought that once learning how to cook is not achieved means more expenditures and the possible acquisition of chronic diseases such as heart diseases and diabetes. Hence, taking into consideration the negative effects of not being able to learn how to cook will trigger more desire to learn how to make the most delicious dish ever.

Role of Reward and Punishment in the Learning Situation

Rewards and punishment play an important and very distinct role in learning. First, by limiting learning to relatively permanent changes, they exclude modifications of behavior due to motivational factors, to sensory adaptation, or to fatigue. Second, by identifying practice, training, or experience as the essential condition for learning, they exclude behavioral changes resulting from maturation, senescence, or physiological variables. Third, by implication they establish the status of the concept learning as an intervening variable. Although, as the typical factual definition implies, learning often does consist in changes in behavior which occur concomitantly with practice, there are may cases in
which it does not. Suppose, for instance, that one examines a map for a while and then drives directly to another city on the basis of this study. If we assume that the act of driving to the city would have been impossible without consulting the map, it clearly depends upon such practice and qualifies as an example of a learned response. On the other hand, it is equally clear that learning in some sense occurred prior to the change in behavior, and that the trip might have been postponed for a consider-
able period of time without altering the fact that learning had occurred. More technically this means that learning is not, as is so often said, a change in behavior. Rather it is a change in behavior potentiality (Domjan, 2003). Or to put it another way, through learning the organism acquires the capability to perform certain acts, although sometimes this capability may remain latent and its appearance in behavioral change may not be immediate. With rewards and punishment, the end result can be easily achieved because of the fact that the motivation is highly being prioritized. In such a way, punishment is prevented.

Form of Instrumental Conditioning Applicable

Instrumental or operant conditioning, occurs when the presentation or withdrawal of a specific stimulus (i.e., reinforcer or punisher) is made contingent upon an organism's specific response. Stimuli that increase the rate or magnitude of a specified response (e.g., food reward; shock termination) are defined as reinforcers. In contrast, stimuli that decrease response rate or magnitude (e.g., presentation of loud noise or shock) are termed punishers. In human operant conditioning studies in which feedback for making the specified response is the reinforcer, the procedure is known as biofeedback. Although instrumental and classical conditioning are both forms of associative learning, instrumental conditioning differs procedurally in that reinforcement. The term conditioning as it is used in present-day psychology refers to two procedures, known as classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The first of these procedures derives from the early work of Pavlov; the latter stems from that of Bechterev and Thorndike. Together these two simple experiments, with their superstructures of theory, have had a profound effect upon the history of psychology and its related sciences. The instrumental experiment, perhaps less well-known outside of psychology, has been more popular within the field. In a typical experiment, a hungry rat is placed in a soundproof compartment into which a small bar or other manipulandum can be inserted. Whenever the animal presses the bar, food, in the form of a small pellet, is delivered into a tray for the rat to seize and consume. With piactice, the response of pressing the bar, which the rat first discovered in exploring the apparatus, becomes the most salient feature of the rat's behavior (Tucker, 1998). So long as the animal remains hungry and receives food for pressing the bar he concentrates on this response. The behavior is totally affected and the desire and the motivation have been increasing in such a very powerful way that the end result is absolutely favorable

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