The Technological and Scientific Diffusion
There has been massive development of the world in economics and other major things since 1950s. These developments have been all because of technological influence and scientific diffusion. Technology has played major role in changing the appearance and the performance of the world. Scientific inventions have also played a major role in accelerating the performance of the world and making everything possible. All these have lead to a stable global economy that has been unstable for long period. The ultimate aim of this paper is to outline different aspects of global revolution that has lead to development of major parts of the world due to technology and scientific inventions as well as stabilization of the global economy. It also looks at how ignorance hinders the scientific progress and development. This is done through examining a number of books that talk about the same issue.
According to Vaclav Smil in his book prime movers of globalization (Smil, p4), there are several books that are published claim that the world cannot be mended over the Genghis Khan as the inventor of global commerce. The accounts are very correct but they miss the point that all these is the influence of technology that has lead to massive improvement of the global economy. The major questions to give a good account of the technology are what enable people to move tons of raw materials from one continent to the other? Why is it possible to fly from one continent to the other and all over the world in 24 hours? All this is due to the influence of technology that is accelerated by scientific inventions. This has lead to massive global evolution that makes almost everything possible and easily done (Smil, p8).
Smil gives a history of two major global developments that occurred due to technology. The invention of high-compression non-sparking internal combustion engines in 1890s, Frank Whittle, and Hans-Joachim’s gas turbines designation in 1930s. The huge diesel engines normally power the cargo ships that are responsible of transporting raw materials and other goods from one continent to the other and the gas turbines that propel jet engines that can travel across the world in less than 24 hours (Smil, p16). These are very crucial global economy than any international trade agreement. It is through these scientific inventions and technology that have brought about the global evolution to the current state. The argument by Smil is that perfect example of global advancement is due to the gradual technical advances that have been given very little attention but in real sense, they have brought about epochal shifts in global affairs and the global economy.
Another good example is from the book ‘History of science of plant breeding’ by Noel Kingbuy that gives an account of how hybrid came to exist that has made a Styrofoam-packed state of modern vegetables and supermarket fruits. Various shoppers hack back to visions of succulent red tomatoes fresh from the garden, gleaming orange carrots that come straight from loamy brown soil and so on (Kingsbuy, p22). The invention of hybrid system has made many products be far away from their natural occurrence. This is just a representation of a millennium long history of choosy hybridization and breeding. In the start of his story at the beginning of agriculture, Smil draws the human history on efforts to enable plants be more dependable, productive and nourishing. This story shows development as an error and accident more than originality.
Basing on scientific and the past facts, Smil indicates how scientist breeders finally led to evolution. This inventions came about as a result of the increased human needs and it has come all the way from sparse wild grasses to the recent juicy vegetables that the world enjoys today. Kingsbury also tells again about the modern conflicts over the genetically modified crops and green revolution that has given the crops a new look; breeding of plants has had a political dimension (Kingsbuy, p34). Therefore, the point brought out is that the scientific inventions have lead to satisfaction of human need of crops due to the new breeding system. The hybrid system has given people across the world a new perspective and appreciation of the vegetables, cereal crops, fruits, and flowers that are concurrent to our way of life.
Timothy Taylor on the other hand argues in his book, ‘the artificial ape: How technology changed the course of human evolution,’ that human beings have resulted to artificial selection through being dictated by the technological adaptation ability (Taylor, p3). The will of the people has succeeded the laws of nature through technological advancement. Taylor argues that it is the technology itself that evolutionary pulled the response of people and not people evolving to employ technology in everyday life. Thus, technology has been adapted by evolving the intelligence of human beings though the pull did not consider the evolution to higher intelligence. Taylor gives an example that long time ago over 2 million year down people have been developing their intelligence to higher standards through hunting and cooking process that gave them more energy to support their growth of intelligent brains (Taylorp5).
Moreover, he also considers the technology that has been neglected by majority of people but does a wonderful work in supporting immature infants since in the old days they used to carry the infants by means of slings and rucksacks. It is through energy efficiency that all these technology came to exist. (Taylor, p7). Note that the technology of carrying infant would not have been recognized if the implements had discovered as this defines the technology build up for hunting which include axes, arrowheads and tools for slicing and cleaving dead animals. Human beings have highly dependent on technology that has greatly lost the natural food production and lead to the hybrid production of food that is well known as visceral insulation.
This means that going back to the natural system is not an option since we cannot majorly depend on nature. The main point brought out by Taylor is that human beings could not grow their intelligence while in the womb; they had to grow it on the external environment through acquiring energy from food materials (Taylor, p20). The technological advancements has lead to scientific inventions that make human beings artificial marsupials hence being able to support the immature infants.
The other point brought out by Taylor is that the current human beings are as result of continuous upcoming world of technology and not by their raw nature meaning that our destiny has greatly diverged from the original human species. The artificial intelligence is thus human intelligence that came up as a technological advancement form. Therefore, there is no doubt that technology and scientific inventions have lead to artificial intelligence that has accelerated the evolution of human being from their original species (Taylor, p28). For instance, the structures of human bones of ancient times say 2000 years ago are much different from those of recent people today. It is also clear that there is still much advancement that are on the way that we must expect since there are still great technological inventions on the way.
According to John Ward and Christian Warren in the book, silent victories, it is observed that the American’s health improved dramatically in the Twentieth century. It indicates that civic health programs for injury and disease deterrence were responsible for most of this advancement. This was due to employing of political and science authority to cub the health problems. The civic health authority expanded to tackle new infections, which includes those emanating from environmental changes, automobile, dietary and complex situations that arise from smoking among others. The ancient health problems comprised of the following : pre-natal mortality, old scourges of diseases and dietary deficiencies (John Ward and Christian Warren, p 17). Most civic heath precautions occur on disputed grounds.
Note that recriminations and controversies normally go hand in hand with the past failures. On the other hand, various successes in public health become the foundation of everyday life even if they are imperfect. According to the C.E.A Winslow, the silent victories of public health are the peers that live extended healthy years and it is a fact from the last century. The silent victories have a unique approach in its exploration of the 20th century public health issues (John Ward and Christian Warren, p18). The leading scientist came up with discoveries, practices and programs that minimize mortality and morbidity for each of the ten issues. The morbidity and mortality come from the injuries and diseases though some come from the social scientists and historians that are accompanying chapters that feature main moments or disagreements that formed the public health actions on the same issue.
The book winds up by looking at the disputes that befall the future of public health by putting to light the past in a way that appeals to the health professionals, students and the public looking for an understanding of how there was an advancement in the health public of the health of various countries in the 20th century. It also considers the contests of protecting health in the future. The book puts it clear that the health of the Americans was able to improve massively because of the technological advancements in the public health. This was also accelerated by the new scientific inventions in the health issues including machines, more powerful drugs that are able to fight the diseases as well as drugs that are able to suppress diseases that have no cure like AIDS. Therefore, technology plays a major role in global development especially in the western world; Europe, Asia and America.
The other argument is from the book, ‘Forgotten people, forgotten diseases: the neglected tropical diseases and their Impact on the global health and development’ by Peter Hotez. It argues out that most people in fact; millions of people die every year because of the tropical disease while most of them remain at the risk of acquiring the diseases. This mostly occurs due to the ignorance of the people through lack of progress in treatment and control programs development because they have negative impacts on the poorest of the world’s poor(Hotez, p17). This is mostly seen in Africa and other third world countries that are very poor or considered to be poor. The forgotten people, forgotten diseases is the first book to talk about the neglected tropical disease (NTDs). Note that most inventions and technological advancements occur in the Western world: Asia, America and European parts but Africa is not among them. Therefore, it is evident enough that there are some places ignored and it is in these areas that millions of people die of the tropical diseases.
The ultimate aim of the book is to pass the message that there is need to take control of the tropical diseases that is neglected on a massive scale (Hotez, p22). It contains all the reasons that support the control of these diseases that also contains indirect impact on the world at large. It argues that the elimination of the negligence on the tropical diseases starts with you, not anybody else thus taking a crucial step to reaching out in a very tangible way to the poorest and most vulnerable people in the world. This is a very important step in increasing the global development because once there is a disaster, it is hard to stabilize the global economy (Hotez, p30).
The same issue is tackled in the book ’Food Politics: What everyone needs to’ by Robert Paarlberg. However, it argues out from a different perspective. It argues out that the politics of food is changing gradually since in rich and developed countries obesity is greatly expanding in comparison to hunger. The consumers are already satisfied with convenient and cheap food and are now looking for nutritious food that is also fresh, safe and produced by the local farmers employing minimal chemicals. This is because the commercial farmers are facing lots of challenges from the environmentalists and the food companies as well as the consumer activists under microscope. The developing countries however have different perception (Paarlberg, p20). Most of them depend on help from the western world especially Asia, which normally accelerates their agricultural success though there is still an Agricultural failure in Africa that has left almost one third of its population, undernourished. The international bodies that connects these regions together are the key factors to sudden disruption, this is evident enough in the unexpected spike in the global food prices that caused street riots and violent actions in most countries.
The book outlines clearly the crucial concepts in today’s global food landscape including famines, international food prices, the Malthusian race between population growth and food production, international food aid as well as the controversies that surround the ‘green revolution’, the politics of obesity among other issues. It is through the effects of famine in most developing countries that lead to the formation of the international food aid that suppliers food to some of these countries affected by famine (Paarlberg, p33). By so doing, the global development is able to move on without many obstacles. Neglecting this leads to discontinuation of global development since the western countries will develop while the developing countries will go on pulling the global economy behind. This is all that comprises to the politics of food.
The last book is delialism where the writer, spector notes that Denialism must be defeated because there is much at stake to agree to any other outcome if science has to be brought back to existence. This book is set to encourage the starting scientists and helps promote the scientific inventions (Specter, p45).