The Hyper Text Markup Language HTML was initially designed for making websites by academics in a limited scope. The initial idea was to collaborate in a few physics projects and share the information in a hypertext format. Owing to said practice they would be able to publish their work on the internet in the forms of experimental data and its results along with different links to other databases research work with including graphical work such as charts and graphs
HTML is a short for “Hyper Text Markup Language”. It has over the years evolved into a computer language for designing web pages or structured documents. It works on the principle of denoting structural semantics for the text e.g. A heading, paragraphs, lists etc along with links, quotes, and other items. It gives the user the option to directly embed images and objects to create interactive forms. A websites made using HTML can be viewed by unanimously with less restriction over the internet. It may be compared to be some aspects SGML. HTML is growing and improving day by day as its audience is growing and demanding more. W3C is the organization designated for designing and maintaining the language.
The visionary concept behind HTML development was that it may be conform to the requirements of web based devices and appliances, like PC, PDAs and modern cellular phones.
HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. Before running into the language details we need to comprehend a few definitions to start with.
Hyper Text: It is the method by which you move around on the web — by clicking on special text called hyperlinks which bring you to the next page. The fact that it is hyper just means it is not linear — i.e. you can go to any place on the Internet whenever you want by clicking on links — there is no set order to do things in.
Markup: It is what HTML tags do to the text inside them. They mark it as a certain type of text (e.g. Italicized text).
HTML is a Language, as it has code-words and syntax like any other language.
HTML consists of a series of short codes. These are typed into a text-file by the site author — they are known as tags. The text is then saved as an html file, and viewed through a browser, e.g. Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. This browser used for viewing the webpage reads the file and translates its text into a visible form; as a result a webpage gets displayed in the format made by the writer. The flexibility of being able to write your own HTML allows you to use tags in a right manner to create a webpage as per your idea. HTML pages may be created using a plain text-editor a powerful graphical editor.
STRUCTURING OF A WEB DOCUMENT
HTML structures down a Web document employing multiple types of tags and attributes. Above all the tags made in HTML language form the basic building blocks of a web page. An initial tag is commonly a word surrounded by brackets. The closure tag is some what surrounded by the same brackets but with a forward slash right after the opening bracket. Some of the tags made are added with attributes. For example, in order to bold if you want to bold a portion of a sentence, then you would use <b> for the opening tag and </b> for the closing.
BASIC TEXT AND FONT TAGS
New Paragraph: <p> Starts a new paragraph and creates a blank line between your new paragraph and the one above it.
The closing tag is </p>, but is not mandatory.
Line Break: <br> this will break your text to the next line. Two <br> tags is equivalent to one <p> tag. There's no closing tag needed for this one.
Bold: <b> Closing tag is </b>
Underline: <u> Closing tag is </u>
Italics: <i> Closing tag is </i>
Centering text: <center> Closing tag is </center>
Left aligning text: <p align="left"> Just use </p> for the closing tag
Right aligning text: <p align="right"> Just use </p> for the closing tag
Change text color: <font color="red"> the ending for any font tag is </font>
If you want more colors, you can also use hex codes .
Changing font face: <font face="Arial">
Change font size: <font size="3"> (choose between 1 and 7)
Blinking Text: <blink> </blink> (only works in Netscape)
Scrolling Text: <marquee> </marquee> (only works in Internet Explorer)
BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN HTML PAGE
One important thing to be notices in the given template is that the tags are “nested" inside one another : <TITLE> and </TITLE> both go between the <HEAD> and </HEAD> tags, and that all the tags are nested between <HTML> and </HTML>. All the text, pictures and so forth in your webpage will go between the <BODY> and </BODY> tags.
WHY TO USE HTML?
In the beginning the HTML gets popularity because of its simplicity. The increasing demands of the web turn out to be the reason of evolution of the HTML. Over the years the language has improved a lot focusing on following issues:
- Partition of presentation from structure
- Improved user-friendly features
- Improve internationalization features
- Improved document representation
In contrast with XHTML it has following features:
- HTML is the root of the web content.HTML is a language that works and is understood unanimously.
- HTML uses less file size, is easier to author and appropriate to the web.
- As HTML uses less file size, this feature makes it efficient as compare to the XHTML.
- HTML and XML are both evenly compatible with CSS.
- HTML has fine support, common use and active development. XHTML2 does not.
- In HTML, almost everything is case-insensitive, while in XML, all element and attribute names are case-sensitive. XHTML requires all elements and attribute names to be lowercase, while in HTML documents it's frequent to find uppercase or even mixed-case name.
Both HTML and XHTML has there pros and cons, the preference of both depends on the requirement of the user.