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Biochemistry

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Isomerism is defined as the existence of two or more compounds which have the same molecular formula but the atoms within the molecule are arranged different. On the other hand, chirality is defined as the geometrical characteristic of a rigid object. Alpha and beta glucose are different in the direction that -OH and –H groups point on carbon 1

There are various properties of monosaccharides: they can be oxidized so as to yield sugar. Monosaccharides also react with phosphoric acid to produce phosphate esters which are fundamental in the metabolism of the cell. Monosaccharides can exist as molecules which are ring-shaped or straight-chain. Lastly, monosaccharides show optical activity.

Fibrous proteins are those that are insoluble in water and are strong while globular proteins are proteins that comprise of long chains of amino acids that are folded into complex shapes.

A heme group is a molecule that contains iron, which then binds with proteins either as a cofactor or prosthetic group to form haemoproteins. They include cytochromes, haemoglobin and myoglobin.

Tertiary structure involves the interaction amid the side groups of amino acid residues that are from different parts of the same chain. It refers to the way the secondary structure twists around and forms a three-dimensional structure. Quaternary structure refers to proteins that have more than one string of amino acids. The amino acids are then combined together.

One theory that explains how enzymes work is lock and key mechanism. This means that an enzyme complements a substrate. The induced site theory suggests that the substrate modifies its shape when connecting with the enzyme (Smith 2010).

Glucose and fructose have the same formula but are differently structured (Marshallro 1957). They differ in the way the atoms are arranged.

There are regions within the long protein chains that are organized into regular structures referred to as alpha-helixes and beta-pleated sheets. They are the secondary structures in proteins that are held together by hydrogen bonds. 

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