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Keeping Intelligent Design out of Science Class

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There are several theories that seek to explain the origin of creation. Some are scientific based; others are theological while others are merely based on cultural beliefs. Particularly, the evolution theory by Charles Darwin is scientifically based; intelligence design has its basis form religion and theology while the mythical theories are largely based on traditional and cultural beliefs. For this reason, not all these theories of creation should be taught in science classes. This is because they are not relevant in the scientific studies. Moreover, these theories only end up confusing students as they are entirely different. Therefore, intelligent design should not be taught in science oriented classrooms for any education level.

Intelligent design is also referred to as the design theory. The theory stipulates that nature is best explained via intellectual causes rather than undirected reasons such as natural selection. This forms one of the explanations theories of creation. The intelligent design dates back to the early times of Greece. It is associated with theologists such as William Paley and William Dembski. In his explanations, Paley put forward an example of a tone and a watch. He said that if one was crossing a heath and happened to come across a stone, they would probably assume that the stone had been lying there forever.

However, if the same person found a watch lying on the ground, they would say that that watch was definitely made by someone. They would also be certain that the person who constructed it came up with its use. It was on this basis that Paley concluded that for each thing that exists, there must have existed a designer behind its construction who also came up with it use. For example, there must exist a designer of eyes who said that eyes are for the purpose of seeing. Therefore, he concluded that there is an intelligent designer for all the things that are in existence. This served as an explanation for creation (Dembski, 2002).

Scientist Charles Darwin is the father of evolution. The Origin of Species argued that all species have descended over the period of time from universal ancestors, and wished to the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution which resulted from natural selection. Natural selection is a gradual evolution process that works on trial and error bases i.e. eliminating the unfavorable variations and conserving favorable change. However, the changes and variations that take place are slow and unnoticeable (Gibson, 2009). Efforts by the analysis to try and sensitize the universe that such variations take place have been countered with a lot of doubt and ignorance. Absence of transitional range of values or noticeable habits has made it difficult to prove its occurrence.

Darwin & Gillian (1996) unlike his scientists, he now believed that humans and animals were similar. During the following year, the mission had been neglected and the Fuegian had named Jemmy Button lived like the other nation and had a wife and did not want to go back to England. Lamarck is considered more whole philosophy of the near the beginning supporters of the Theory of Evolution that Charles Darwin later adopted and to a great extent expanded. Lamarck followed generation in clearing up development as a directed process and self-adapting means by which species misused their characteristics in response to ecological changes and passed the characteristics to future generation. His five-year voyage on Beagle, he was known as an important geologist whose interpretation and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian thoughts, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him well-known as a popular author.

Darwin’s theories of evolution developed gradually over time. He believed that the view of divine creation in other terms, every species was created by a divine being and it is unchanging. He was on a ship voyage around the world where he got to read the works of other scientists and observed animals in different continents. He began to consider that species must have changed steadily and were not made to exist only as they were created. He dedicated his life to the study of plants and animals and later than reading Thomas Malthus’s “Essay on the Principle of Population”, he accomplished that species with greater physical and behavioral attributes are more likely to live than their inferiors. These survivors would generate most offspring and the innate attributes from the “superior species” and would become most common. Darwin defined this process as the “natural selection”.

Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection (2002) obtained superior scientific acknowledgment, but Lamarck's concepts had support. Darwin realized some of these restrictions to his theory. He addressed them with concern, but not with final ability. Other researchers have portrayed that anxious system and watch on the development to have a selection of intermediate patterns in the animal world and a steady evolution of these systems is completely possible.

Darwin faced several difficulties in his process of enhancing his theories. The major problem involved the variation to be selected. He relied on the variety of important conventional explanation of variation such as the direct effect of environment, indirect effect on inheritance of characteristics, behavior, use and disuse, correlation of growth and balance. In the ninetieth century Charles Darwin was the first scientist to establish the theory under which he said, all species of life descended over time form common ancestry. He later stated that branching pattern of evolution result to the process of natural selection in the scientific theories (Freedman, 2006).

Early Christian priests and researchers believed that organisms were unsteady and that the creation story is allegory. This drove some people to accept the theory due to the influence of the church. Religious rivalry grew hard, and natural selection was viewed as a violation of Christian values. Scriptures were rejected from being a guide to historical times. Upgraded evolutionary system was developed between 1930s and 1950s, arriving at an agreement that natural selection was the primary cause of evolution. However, this did not succeed to counter traditional and Christian beliefs, since religion ruled the whole earth. Even today it rules.

Our imperfect view of these changes makes natural selection to be potent. The question is; can this assortment apply in our complex nature? Geological research has been undertaken to prove its occurrence; fossils have been drawn to prove that humans were looked different centuries ago (Darwin, 1996). This bore positive results since the fossil remains showed that the human ancestors basically resembled their descendants though their features were primordial. Unfortunately, earlier geologists were unable to acquire fossils of other organisms, for example, horses and eagles. Also, natural selection was pointed out as inappropriate in explaining the evolution of very elaborate structures so as to prove that evolution had really taken place. It seemed to be evading some steps in explaining the whole process. Instead, it used assumptions to explain the ‘missed steps’. This is because some organisms changed in a similar manner and therefore, the rule of natural selection could not apply. If natural selection had taken place, then some of the organisms that had evolved in the same manner should be extinct.

At the end of the twentieth century, natural selection got more reinforcement and ecology professionals took time to review the issue. George C. Williams was given much more support by the universities that he worked for in his evolution research and referencing. There was better appreciation of geological theories due to the fact that more evidence had been produced; as opposed to the time Charles Darwin was on course. Also, there was more provision of evolution education. Natural selection is awakening and enlightening, and its awareness sensitizes people to note the elapse of time and changes that take place in our universe. Its appreciation helps in making of adaptability plans so as to cope up with the unnoticeable changes. Due to the need of facing reality, people are made aware of the consequences that may occur in case of rivalry.

These theories are still held even up to date. The scientist community accepted him in the scientific society because of his way of life time. His discovery was a unified theory of life science which explains the diversity of life. The theory of modern evolutionary synthesis developed the natural selection and was found to be the best mechanism of evolution. His theories of evolution developed gradually over time (Dembski, Johnson & Pearcey, 1999). Therefore, he concluded that there is an intelligent designer for all the things that are in existence. This served as an explanation for creation.

Darwin later learnt about Lamarck’s theory and used it to develop his own theory of evolution. Darwin’s ideas and the theory of evolution can be summarized as natural selection which causes change within populations to allow them to survive. He later stated that, the isolation of a species leads to its formation, and the extinction of one species leads to their replacement by another species.

He believed that the view of divine creation in other terms, every species was created by a divine being and it is unchanging. He was on a ship voyage around the world where he got to read the works of other scientists and observed animals in different continents. He began to consider that species must have changed steadily and were not made to exist only as they were created. He dedicated his life to the study of plants and animals and later than reading Thomas Malthus’s “Essay on the Principle of Population”, he accomplished that species with greater physical and behavioral attributes are more likely to live than their inferiors. These survivors would generate most offspring and the innate attributes from the “superior species” and would become most common (Ospovat, 1995). Darwin defined this process as the “natural selection”. He also decided that each species evolves to adapt to their surroundings, which is why similar species in different locations may have different behavior.

On the other hand, Chevalier de Lamarck was a French biologist in the late 18th century who discovered a theory as to how evolution occurs. Lamarck understood that evolution was the “acquired traits” of a species being hereditary by its young ones. The acquired behaviors were obtained through persistent use of a structure to perform a certain duty. He later develops structure physically to make the mission easier.  His portrait an example in the growth of giraffe’s necks from struggling to reach higher for food, and then the new attribute of a longer neck inherited to offspring (Brockman, 2006).

Darwin later learnt about Lamarck’s theory and used it to develop his own theory of evolution. Darwin’s ideas and the theory of evolution can be summarized as natural selection which causes change within populations to allow them to survive. He later stated that, the isolation of a species leads to its formation, and the extinction of one species leads to their replacement by another species.

Darwin spent most of that time mainly in land researching, geology and in the natural history collections, while the Beagle was in the coasts surveying and charting. He did keen research and came up with notes of observations and theoretical speculations. During that time, the voyages of his specimens were sent to Cambridge together with letters together with a copy of his journal for his people. He knew of expertise in geology so he collected beetle and dissecting sea invertebrates. Despite continually suffering severely from sea illness when collecting beetle and dissecting marine invertebrates, most of his zoology notes were on marine invertebrates, such as the plankton in a calm spell. Darwin was happy by the tropical forest, but disliked the sight of slavery.

Darwin’s work may have been faced with a lot of denigration though it still revolved around what was ignored. It initiates the virtue of alertness directed to the changes and variations that take place. There may be diversified values in certain species that make it difficult to note the elimination taking place, but on the other hand, the development of a certain set of organisms is always clear. For instance; uneducated people are faced with a lot of hardships when they try to cope up with the latest methods of doing things (Adamson, 2008). Therefore, their culture dies, or they die and leave no one to preserve their culture. Such cases can be seen in the United States. There are scarce traces of the natives. In a country undergoing climatic change, the organisms also go through an immediate change, and some species may become extinct. The formation of the earth was made of slow inimitable events, and the exclusive events have been altering the evolutionary process of the earth’s organisms. Therefore, these keep the future at an unpredictable site.

Natural selection can either act on the group level or on the individual level. On the individual level, it was a mutual relationship that brought in the attribute of morality: Non-cooperative individuals ended up losing moral support and later became extinct. Due the development of Mendel’s laws of genetics, this individual level was seen as more powerful in influencing natural selection (Darwin & Peckham, 2006). This is because an organism with a recessive gene tends to be faced out by the organisms with the dominant gene (the majority) and the growth and developmental factors. On the group level, organisms in the group may face out other groups because of their in-cooperation and the organic and inorganic factors which may not support their survival. Rivalry between organisms in the modern world is vivid especially due to the diminishing resources. However, we tend to turn a blind eye on this rivalry and to some extent it is assumed that it is just a moral issue where some organisms are more aggressive and violent than others (Williams 216).

Theory of natural selection is very significant, but there are still facts to be confirmed and contradictions to be unfolded. This does not mean that its quintessence should be ignored till then. People need to take caution before time elapses. The facts that they are aware will be erased from the face of the earth due their inappropriateness.

Our imperfect view of these changes makes natural selection to be potent. The question is; can this assortment apply in our complex nature? Geological research has been undertaken to prove its occurrence; fossils have been drawn to prove that humans were looked different centuries ago. This bore positive results since the fossil remains showed that the human ancestors basically resembled their descendants though their features were primordial. Unfortunately, earlier geologists were unable to acquire fossils of other organisms, for example, horses and eagles (Darwin, Glick & Kohn, 1996). Also, natural selection was pointed out as inappropriate in explaining the evolution of very elaborate structures so as to prove that evolution had really taken place. It seemed to be evading some steps in explaining the whole process. Instead, it used assumptions to explain the ‘missed steps’. This is because some organisms changed in a similar manner and therefore, the rule of natural selection could not apply. If natural selection had taken place, then some of the organisms that had evolved in the same manner should be extinct.

Conclusion

At the end of the twentieth century, natural selection got more reinforcement and ecology professionals took time to review the issue. George C. Williams was given much more support by the universities that he worked for in his evolution research and referencing. There was better appreciation of geological theories due to the fact that more evidence had been produced; as opposed to the time Charles Darwin was on course. Also, there was more provision of evolution education.

Natural selection can either act on the group level or on the individual level. On the individual level, it was a mutual relationship that brought in the attribute of morality: Non-cooperative individuals ended up losing moral support and later became extinct. Due the development of Mendel’s laws of genetics, this individual level was seen as more powerful in influencing natural selection. This is because an organism with a recessive gene tends to be faced out by the organisms with the dominant gene (the majority) and the growth and developmental factors (Stewart, 2007). On the group level, organisms in the group may face out other groups because of their in-cooperation and the organic and inorganic factors which may not support their survival. Rivalry between organisms in the modern world is vivid especially due to the diminishing resources. However, we tend to turn a blind eye on this rivalry and to some extent it is assumed that it is just a moral issue where some organisms are more aggressive and violent than others.

Natural selection is a spontaneous evolution process that works on trial and error bases i.e. eliminating the unfavorable variations and preserving favorable changes (Charles Darwin. Origin of species, 1996). However, the changes and variations that take place are slow and unnoticeable. Efforts by the analysis to try and sensitize the universe that such variations take place have been countered with a lot of doubt and ignorance. Absence of transitional range of values or noticeable habits has made it difficult to prove its occurrence (Charles Darwin. Origin of species, 1996). Theory of natural selection is very significant, but there are still facts to be confirmed and contradictions to be unfolded. This does not mean that its quintessence should be ignored till then. People need to take caution before time elapses. The facts that they are aware will be erased from the face of the earth due their inappropriateness.

However good the theories of natural selection could be, there are still issues to be confirmed and contradictions to unfold. This does not mean that its essence should be ignored till then. People need to take caution before time elapses and leave them and the facts they are aware of be erased from the face of the earth due their inappropriateness. From the above analysis, it is a clear indication that intelligent design is more theology and psychology bent than science. This means that students in science class should not be taught this intelligent design theory in class. On the contrary, they should be taught the theory of evolution.

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