According to Williams & Godson (2002), the term transnational crime is used to describe the crimes that happen across borders of different countries. This term is frequently used in academic communities and law enforcement. The use of the word transnational is not only limited to crimes crossing borders between countries (international) but also those that by their nature, entail crossings of border as a key component of the criminal activity. Transnational crimes additionally encompass crimes which take place in a give country although another country gets considerably affected by their repercussions. On the other hand, transnational organized crime (TOC) is used to particularly mean transnational crime that is committed by organized crime organizations
Scorza (2007) explains that there are many examples of transnational crimes that include: people smuggling, human trafficking, trafficking/smuggling of goods (drugs and arms), pedophilia, sexy slavery and terrorism. Examples of groups committing these crimes are: Russian Mafia, La Cosa Nostra, Yakuva, Fuk Ching, Red Wa, and Jao Pho.
The u. s and other countries have employed strategies to combat the situation by: withdrawal of arms from individuals, intensive international boundary control, formation of organized crime strike force units, using of informants, carrying out undercover operations, use of electronic surveillance systems, use of immunity systems, sentences and witness protection programs. Although the measures have helped apprehend some groups, they are yet to fully take charge of the situation (Williams & Godson, 2002).
Transnational crime is difficult to eradicate because the groups keep on engaging in the systematic forms of cooperation meant to advance their criminal operations, enlarge the territory of their illegal markets and enlarge their capacity to penetrate legitimate business (Scorza, 2007). Their capacity to exploit legal commerce for suppression, improved mobility, and use of global banking system to accumulate, launder and move the returns of their crimes has even made it harder to combat the act.